Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2018)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2018, 5(3): 89-93 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sleman Ali H, Mageed S, Jahed Khaniki G, Shariatifar N, Yunesian M, Rezaeian M et al . Contamination of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in Raw Vegetables Produced in Koya City, Iraq. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2018; 5 (3) :89-93
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-455-en.html
Division of Food Safety and Hygiene, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , ghjahed@sina.tums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (226 Views)
Background: Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the most important parasitic pathogen which causes acute gastroenteritis in human. This study aimed to determine and compare the contamination rates of Cryptosporidium oocysts in some common vegetables that are cultured and consumed in Koya City, Iraq.
Methods: Totally, 400 vegetable samples were collected randomly from vegetable farms in Koya city during spring and summer, 2016. The vegetables, including celery, parsley, leek, radish, and green onion were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method. Data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software (version 21).
Results: The prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in parsley, celery, leek, radish, and green onion were 6.25, 7.50, 6.25, 6.25, and 6.25%, respectively, showing no significant differences (p>0.05). Also, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 12 out of 200 (6%) samples from spring and 14 out of 200 (7%) samples from summer, without any significant difference (p>0.05).  
Conclusion: Our findings highlighted that if the proper washing as well as disinfecting actions are neglected before consumption of the vegetables, consumption of raw vegetables could be potentially hazardous, inducing Cryptosporidium infection in Iraqi people.

DOI: 10.29252/jfqhc.5.3.89
Full-Text [PDF 547 kb]   (84 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 17/10/01 | Accepted: 18/02/19 | Published: 18/09/24

References
1. Abougrain A.K., Nahaisi M.H., Madi N.S., Saied M.M., Ghenghesh K.S. (2010). Parasitological contamination in salad vegetables in Tripoli-Libya. Food Control. 21: 760-762. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.11.005]
2. Ahmad S.O., El Fadaly H.A., Zaki M.S., Barakat A.M.A. (2016). Incidence of zoonotic parasites in Egyptian raw vegetable salads. Life Science Journal. 13: 27-31.
3. Al-Binali A.M., Bello C.S., El-Shewy K., Abdulla S.E. (2006). The prevalence of parasites in commonly used leafy vegetables in South Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 27: 613-616.
4. Al-Megrm W.I. (2010). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 5: 20-23. [DOI:10.3923/ijtmed.2010.20.23]
5. Amoah P., Drechsel P., Abaidoo R.C., Klutse A. (2007). Effectiveness of common and improved sanitary washing methods in selected cities of West Africa for the reduction of coliform bacteria and helminth eggs on vegetables. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 12: 40-50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01940.x]
6. Avazpoor M., Yousefipoor M.T., Dusty M., Mehdipour M., Seifipour F., Gholami Z. (2015). Determination of the level of parasitic infection (Cryptosporidium and Giardia) of the vegetables marketed in Ilam city. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal. 2: 33-40.
7. Chalmers R.M., Katzer F. (2013). Looking for Cryptosporidium: the application of advances in detection and diagnosis. Trends in Parasitology. 29: 237-251. [DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2013.03.001]
8. Checkley W., White A.C., Jaganath D., Arrowood M.J., Chalmers R.M., Chen X.M., Fayer R., Griffiths J.K., Guerrant R.L., Hedstrom L., Huston C.D. (2015). A review of the global burden, novel diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for cryptosporidium. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 15: 85-94. [DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70772-8]
9. Damen J.G., Banwat E.B., Egah D.Z., Allanana J.A. (2007). Parasitic contamination of vegetables in Jos, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine. 6: 115-118. [DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55723]
10. Dixon B., Parrington L., Cook A., Pollari F., Farber J. (2013). Detection of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Food Protection. 76: 307-313. [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-282]
11. Duedu K.O., Yarnie E.A., Tetteh-Quarcoo P.B., Attah S.K., Donkor E.S., Ayeh-Kumi P.F. (2014). A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana. BMC Research Notes. 7: 836. [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-836]
12. Fallah A.A., Pirali-Kheirabadi K., Shirvani F., Saei-Dehkordi S.S. (2012). Prevalence of parasitic contamination in vegetables used for raw consumption in Shahrekord, Iran: influence of season and washing procedure. Food Control. 25: 617-620. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.12.004]
13. Gupta N., Khan D.K., Santra S.C. (2009). Prevalence of intestinal helminth eggs on vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Food Control. 20: 942-945. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.02.003]
14. Hadi A.M. (2011). Isolation and identification of intestinal parasites from vegetables from different markets of Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum. 11: 17-25.
15. Insulander M., de Jong B., Svenungsson B. (2008). A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at hotel restaurant in Stockholm County, Sweden. Eurosurveillance. 13: 1-2.
16. Ma L., Sotiriadou I., Cai Q., Karanis G., Wang G., Wang G., Lu Y., Li X., Karanis P. (2014). Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in agricultural and water environments in the Qinghai area of China by IFT and PCR. Parasitology Research. 113: 3177-3184. [DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3979-5]
17. Maikai B.V., Baba-Onoja E.B.T., Elisha I.A. (2013). Contamination of raw vegetables with Cryptosporidium oocysts in markets within Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Food Control. 31: 45-48. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.09.032]
18. Ortega Y.R., Roxas C.R., Gilman R.H., Miller N.J., Cabrera L., Taquiri C., Sterling C.R. (1997). Isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from vegetables collected in markets of an endemic region in Peru. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 57: 683-686. [DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.1997.57.683]
19. Petri W.A., Haque R., Lyerly D., Vines R.R. (2000). Estimating the impact of amebiasis on health. Parasitology Today. 16: 320-321. [DOI:10.1016/S0169-4758(00)01730-0]
20. Pires S.M., Vieira A.R., Perez E., Wong D.L.F., Hald T. (2012). Attributing human foodborne illness to food sources and water in Latin America and the Caribbean using data from outbreak investigations. International Journal Food Microbiology. 152: 129-138. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.04.018]
21. Rahman J., Talukder A.I., Hossain F., Mahomud S., Islam A., Shamsuzzoha M. (2014). Detection of Cryptosporidium oocyts in commonly consumed fresh salad vegetables. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2: 224-226.
22. Ranjbar-Bahadori S.H., Mostoophi A., Shemshadi B. (2013). Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran. Tropical Biomedicine. 30: 193-198.
23. Rossle N.F., Latif B. (2013). Cryptosporidiosis as threatening health problem: a review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 3: 916-924. [DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60179-3]
24. Rostami A., Ebrahimi M., Mehravar S., Omrani V.F., Fallahi S., Behniafar H. (2016). Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 225: 54-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.03.013]
25. Said D.E.S. (2012). Detection of parasites in commonly consumed raw vegetables. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 48: 345-352. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajme.2012.05.005]
26. Sherbini G.T.E., Kamel N.O.H., Geneedy M.R., Temsah A.G. (2016). A comparative study of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts found on fresh fruits and vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 5: 760-768. [DOI:10.20546/ijcmas.2016.508.085]
27. Su G.L.S., Mariano C.M.R., Matti N.S.A., Ramos G.B. (2012). Assessing parasitic infestation of vegetables in selected markets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases. 2: 51-54. [DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60012-7]
28. Tefera T., Biruksew A., Mekonnen Z., Eshetu T. (2014). Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from selected local markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. International Scholarly Research Notices. 1: 1-7. [DOI:10.1155/2014/382715]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb