Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2019)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2019, 6(4): 162-167 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Xulu N, Jamal-Ally S, Naidoo K. Microbial and Chemical Adulterants Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Collected from Dairy Farms of Hlabisa Villages, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2019; 6 (4) :162-167
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-632-en.html
Discipline of Food Security, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Pietermaritzburg, 3209, South Africa , Naidook12@ukzn.ac.za
Abstract:   (3247 Views)
Background: Milk is one of the most nutritious foods providing a variety of proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins needed to maintain, grow, and develop the body. The aim of this study was to assess microbial and chemical adulterants of raw cow milk collected from dairy farms of Hlabisa villages, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.
Methods: A total of 68 raw cow milk samples were obtained from teats sampling points, milking buckets, and communal pooling buckets. The bacteriological analysis was conducted for the detection of various bacteria in milk samples. Biochemical tests were also done to detect some chemical adulterants in milk samples.
Results: Total bacterial count of teats, milking buckets, and communal milk pooling buckets were 6.91, 6.06, and 6.06 log Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml, respectively. The most found chemical adulterant was urea detected in 23 out of 68 (33.8%) samples, followed by hydrogen peroxide showed in 22 out of 68 (32.3%) samples. However, none of the samples were contaminated with formalin, starch, and neutralizer.
Conclusion: The present study revealed high microbial contamination of raw cow milk produced by rural small-scale dairy farmers of Hlabisa villages, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, indicating the lack of standard operating sanitation. It was also stated that raw milk samples contained various types of chemical adulterants that may lead to severe health problems. Good hygiene practices must be adopted by small-scale dairy farmers at every stage of their milk handling and processing.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.4.1994
Full-Text [PDF 416 kb]   (626 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 19/04/25 | Accepted: 19/09/02 | Published: 19/12/16

1. Abbas M.N., Khattak B., Sajid A., Islam T.U., Jamal Q., Munir S. (2013). Biochemical and bacteriological analysis of cows' milk samples collected from district Peshawar. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 21: 221-226.
2. Akabanda F., Owusu-Kwarteng J., Glover R.L.K., Tano-Debrah K. (2010). Microbiological characteristics of Ghanaian traditional fermented milk product, Nunu. Nature and Science. 8: 178-187.
3. Azad T., Ahmed S. (2016). Common milk adulteration and their detection techniques. International Journal of Food Contamination. 3: 22. [DOI: 10.1186/s40550-016-0045-3] [DOI:10.1186/s40550-016-0045-3]
4. Barham G.S., Khaskheli M., Soomro A.H., Nizamani Z.A. (2014). Extent of extraneous water and detection of various adulterants in market milk at Mirpurkhas, Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 7: 83-89. [DOI: 10.9790/2380-07318389] [DOI:10.9790/2380-07318389]
5. Bereda A., Yilma Z., Nurfeta A. (2012). Hygienic and microbial quality of raw whole cow's milk produced in Ezha district of the Gurage zone, Southern Ethiopia. Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research. 1: 459-465.
6. Brooke J.S. (2012). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an emerging global opportunistic pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25: 2-41. [DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00019-11] [DOI:10.1128/CMR.00019-11] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. De Muynck W., De Belie N., Verstraete W. (2010). Antimicrobial mortar surfaces for the improvement of hygienic conditions. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 108: 62-72. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04395.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04395.x] [PMID]
8. Department of Health of Republic of South Africa. (2002). Guideline for environmental health officers on the interpretation of microbiological analysis data of food. Republic of South Africa. pp: 1-26.
9. Eggermont M., Bossier P., Pande G.S.J., Delahaut V., Rayhan A.M., Gupta N., Islam S.S., Yumo E., Nevejan N., Sorgeloos P., Gomez-Gil B., Defoirdt T. (2017). Isolation of vibrionaceae from wild blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) adults and their impact on blue mussel larviculture. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 93. [DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fix039] [DOI:10.1093/femsec/fix039] [PMID]
10. Garedew L., Berhanu A., Mengesha D., Tsegay G. (2012). Identification of Gram-negative bacteria from critical control points of raw and pasteurized cow milk consumed at Gondar town and its suburbs, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 12: 950. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-950] [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-950] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Gwandu S., Nonga H.E., Mdegela R.H., Katakweba A.S., Suleiman T.S., Ryoba R. (2018). Assessment of raw cow milk quality in smallholder dairy farms in Pemba Island Zanzibar, Tanzania. Veterinary Medicine International. 2018: 1031726. [DOI: 10.1155/2018/1031726] [DOI:10.1155/2018/1031726] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Hagevoort G.R., Douphrate D.I., Reynolds S.J. (2013). A review of health and safety leadership and managerial practices on modern dairy farms. Journal of Agromedicine. 18: 265-273. [DOI: 10.1080/1059924X.2013.796905] [DOI:10.1080/1059924X.2013.796905] [PMID]
13. Hamid I., Sikandar K., Muhammad A., Abdul Q., Asim K., Saifullah M., Naq J., Shahzad M. (2013). Microbial analysis and quality control of milk collected from various districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bioscience. 2: 243-252.
14. Handford C.E., Campbell K., Elliott C.T. (2016). Impacts of milk fraud on food safety and nutrition with special emphasis on developing countries. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 15: 130-142. [DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12181] [DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12181]
15. Hemraj V., Diksha S., Avneet G. (2013). A review on commonly used biochemical test for bacteria. Innovare Journal of Life Sciences. 1: 1-7.
16. Jayarao B.M., Wang L. (1999). A study on the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria in bulk tank milk. Journal of Dairy Science. 82: 2620-2624. [DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75518-9] [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75518-9]
17. Kandpal S.D., Srivastava A.K., Negi K.S. (2012). Estimation of quality of raw milk (open and branded) by milk adulteration testing kit. Indian Journal of Community Health. 24: 188-192.
18. Karimuribo E.D., Gallet P.L., Ng'umbi N.H., Matiko M.K., Massawe L.B., Mpanduji D.G., Batamuzi E.K. (2015). Status and factors affecting milk quality along the milk value chain: a case of Kilosa district, Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 27: 51.
19. Knight-jones T.J.D., Hang'ombe M.B., Songe M.M., Sinkala Y., Grace D. (2016). Microbial contamination and hygiene of fresh cow's milk produced by smallholders in Western Zambia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13: 737. [DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13070737] [DOI:10.3390/ijerph13070737] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Lateef M., Faraz A., Mustafa M.I., Akhtar P., Bashir M.K. (2009). Detection of adulterants and chemical composition of milk supplied to canteens of various hospitals in Faisalabad city. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 9: 139-142.
21. Liu H., Zhu J., Hu Q., Rao X. (2016). Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 50: 10-17. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.07.006] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.07.006] [PMID]
22. Looney W.J., Narita M., Mühlemann K. (2009). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an emerging opportunist human pathogen. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 9: 312-323. [DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70083-0] [DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70083-0]
23. Lues J.F.R., Jacoby A., De Beer H., Jansen E.K., Shale K. (2012). Survey on different factors influencing small-scale milking practices in a peri-urban area. Scientific Research and Essays. 7: 740-750. [DOI: 10.5897/SRE10.042] [DOI:10.5897/SRE10.042]
24. Mahmoudi R., Amini K., Vahabzadeh M., Mir H., Vagef R. (2014). Antibiotics residues in raw and pasteurized milk, Iran. Journal of Research and Health. 4: 884-889.
25. Mesfine S., Feyera T., Mohammed O. (2015). Microbiological quality of raw cow's milk from four dairy farms in Dire Dawa City, Eastern Ethiopia. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences. 10: 09-14. [ DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2015.10.1. 9196]
26. Msalya G. (2017). Contamination levels and identification of bacteria in milk sampled from three regions of Tanzania: evidence from literature and laboratory analyse. Veterinary Medicine International. 2017: 9096149. [DOI: 10.1155/2017/9096149] [DOI:10.1155/2017/9096149] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Nirwal S., Pant R., Rai N. (2013). Analysis of milk quality, adulteration and mastitis in milk samples collected from different regions of Dehradun. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 5: 359-364.
28. Ngasala J.U.B., Nonga H.E., Mtambo M.M.A. (2015). Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness of milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 47: 927-932. [DOI: 10.1007/s11250-015-0810-y] [DOI:10.1007/s11250-015-0810-y] [PMID]
29. Ohnishi M., Sawada T., Marumo K., Harada K., Hirose K., Shimizu A., Hayashimoto M., Sato R., Uchida N., Kato H. (2012). Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness of bovine Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from a mastitis outbreak. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 54: 572-576. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2012.03246.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2012.03246.x] [PMID]
30. Singh C.L., Cariappa C.M.P., Kaur L.C.M. (2016). Klebsiella oxytoca: an emerging pathogen? Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 72: 59-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.mjafi.2016.05.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.mjafi.2016.05.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Singuluri H., Sukumaran M.K. (2014). Milk adulteration in Hyderabad, India-a comparative study on the levels of different adulterants present in milk. Journal of Chromatography and Separation Techniques. 5: 1000212. [DOI:10.4172/2157-7064.1000212] [DOI:10.4172/2157-7064.1000212]
32. Swai E.S., Schoonman L. (2011). Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1: 217-222. [DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60030-0] [DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60030-0]
33. Wanjala G.W., Mathooko F.M., Kutima P.M., Mathara J.M. (2017). Microbiological quality and safety of raw and pasteurized milk marketed in and around Nairobi region. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 17: 11518-11532. [DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.77.15320] [DOI:10.18697/ajfand.77.15320]
34. Zhang R., Huo W., Zhu W., Mao S. (2015). Characterization of bacterial community of raw milk from dairy cows during subacute ruminal acidosis challenge by high‐throughput sequencing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95: 1072-1079. [DOI 10.1002/jsfa.6800] [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.6800]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb