Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2018)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2018, 5(3): 84-88 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Department of Biological Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria , smpanda92@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1149 Views)
Background: Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables is one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the parasitic contamination in fruits and vegetables in the Bauchi area, North-East Nigeria.
Methods: From May to July 2017, a total of 776 samples comprising 182 samples of four different types of fruits, and 594 samples of six different types of vegetables were screened by simple floatation and formol-ether concentration techniques. The isolated parasitic ova and cysts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics with reference to the standard keys. The data were analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS computer software version 21.0.
Results: Totally, 26 out of 182 fruit samples (14.3%), and 82 out of 594 vegetable samples (13.8%) were contaminated with various parasitic ova and cysts. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common parasitic contaminant in both fruits and vegetable samples. The differences were not statistically significant in the prevalence rates of contamination among different types of fruits and vegetables (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables consumed in Bauchi, Nigeria are the major sources of parasitic infections and may have serious public health implications. It seems that health education with respect to personal hygiene and eating habits is the most practical and useful approach in order to desired control in the studied area. The local people must be effectively trained for proper washing and disinfecting of the fruits and vegetables prior to consumption.

DOI: 10.29252/jfqhc.5.3.84
Full-Text [PDF 294 kb]   (306 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 18/02/02 | Accepted: 18/06/13 | Published: 18/09/24

1. Adamu N.B., Adamu J.Y., Mohammed D. (2012). Prevalence of helminth parasites found on vegetables sold in Maiduguri. Food Control. 25: 23-26. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.10.016]
2. Adeyeba O.A., Okpala N. (2000). Intestinal parasites and bacterial pathogens carried by common filth house flies in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Science. 4: 53-63.
3. Alade G.O., Alade T.O., Adewuyi I.K. (2013). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in Ilorin, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 13: 1275-1282.
4. Al-Binali A.M., Bello C.S., El-Shawi K., Abdallah S.E. (2006). The prevalence of parasites in commonly used leafy vegetables in south western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Medical Journal. 27: 613-616.
5. Al-Megrm W.I. (2010). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 5: 20-23. [DOI:10.3923/ijtmed.2010.20.23]
6. Amoah P., Drechsel P., Abaidoo R.C., Ntow W.J. (2006). Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 50: 1- 6. [DOI:10.1007/s00244-004-0054-8]
7. Anwar S.A., McKenry M.V. (2012). Incidence and population density of plant parasitic nematodes infecting vegetable crops and associated yield losses in Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 44: 327-333.
8. Avcioglu H., Soykan E., Tarakci U. (2011). Control of helminth contamination of raw vegetables by washing. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 11: 189-191. [DOI:10.1089/vbz.2009.0243]
9. Bier J.W. (1991). Isolation of parasites on fruits and vegetables. The Southeast Asian journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 22: 144-145.
10. Cheesbrough M. (2006). District medical laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, UK. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9780511543470]
11. Damen J.G., Banwat E.B., Egah D.Z., Allanana J.A. (2007). Parasitic contamination of vegetables in Jos, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine. 6: 115-118. [DOI:10.4103/1596-3519.55723]
12. Darchenkova N.N., Romanenko N.A., Chernyshenko A.I. (2006). Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation. Medical Parasitology. 4: 40-43.
13. Daryani A., Ettehad G.H., Sharif M., Ghorbani L., Ziaei H. (2008). Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables consumed in Ardabil, Iran. Food Control. 19: 790-794. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.08.004]
14. Ozlem E., Sener H. (2005). The contamination of various fruits and vegetables with Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris eggs, Entamoeba histolytica cysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. Food Control. 16: 557-560. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.06.016]
15. Fallah A.A., Pirali-Kheirabadi K., Shirvani F., Saei-Dehkordi S.S. (2012). Prevalence of parasitic contamination in vegetables used for raw consumption in Shahrekord, Iran: influence of season and washing procedure. Food Control. 25: 617-620. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.12.004]
16. Gupta N., Kahn D.K., Santra S.C. (2009). Prevalence of intestinal helminth eggs on vegetables grown in waste water-irrigated areas of Titagarh, Benghad, India. Food Control. 20: 942-945. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.02.003]
17. Kozan E., Gonenc B., Sarimehmetoglu O., Aycicek H. (2005). Prevalence of helminth eggs on raw vegetables used for salad. Food Control. 16: 239-242. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.02.005]
18. Nmorsi O.P.G., Ukwandu N.C.D., Agbozele G.E. (2006). Detection of some gastrointestinal parasites from four synanthropic flies in Espuma, Nigeria. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 43: 136-139.
19. Ogbolu D.O., Alli O.A., Ogunleye V.F., Olusoga-Ogbolu F.F., Olaosun I. (2009). The presence of intestinal parasites in selected vegetables from open markets in southwestern, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 38: 319-324.
20. Ogunleye V.F., Babatunde S.K., Ogbolu D.O. (2010). Parasitic contamination of vegetables from some markets in southwestern, Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences. 17: 23-26. [DOI:10.4314/tjhc.v17i2.60985]
21. Shafa-ul-Haq S., Maqbool A., Javed K.U., Yasmin G., Sultana R. (2014). Parasitic contamination of vegetables eaten raw in Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 46: 130-135.
22. Simon-Oke I.A., Afolabi O.J., Obasola O.P. (2014). Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold in Akure metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. Researcher. 6: 30-35.
23. Slifko T.R., Smith H.V., Rose J.B. (2000). Emerging parasitic zoonoses associated with water and food. International Journal of Parasitology. 30: 1379-1393. [DOI:10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00128-4]
24. Srikanth R., Naik D. (2004). Prevalence of giardiasis due to waste water reuse for agriculture in the surbabs of Asmara City, Eritrea. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 14: 43-52. [DOI:10.1080/09603120310001633912]
25. Sunil B., Thomas D.R., Latha C., Shameem H. (2014). Assessment of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Mannuthy, Kerala State, India. Veterinary World. 7: 253-256. [DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2014.253-256]
26. Uga S., Hoa N.T., Noda S., Moji K., Cong L., Aoki Y., Rai S.K., Fujimaki Y. (2009). Parasite egg contamination of vegetables from a surbaban market in Hanoi, Vietnam. Nepal Medical College Journal. 11: 75-78.
27. Uneke C.J. (2007). Potential for geohelminth parasite transmission by raw fruits and vegetables in Nigeria: implication for a risk profile. Journal of Nutrition and Environmental Medicine. 16: 59-68. [DOI:10.1080/13590840601167636]
28. Voung T.A., Nguyen T.T., Klank L.T., Phung D.C., Dalsgaard A. (2007). Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomea aquatic) cultivated in urban waste water in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 12: 73-81. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01944.x]