Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2020)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2020, 7(2): 60-66 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Department of Nursing & Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing & Health Sciences, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box: 72, Zouk Mikael, Lebanon , lkaram@ndu.edu.lb
Abstract:   (2227 Views)
Background: Controlling and reducing the food-borne illnesses remain one of the most challenging problems encountered by food authorities worldwide. This study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of chicken breast, chicken liver, local and imported offal, and ground beef meat products sold in the Lebanese retail market.
Methods: Thirty-five chicken breast and liver samples produced by ISO 22000 certified and non-certified companies were purchased from the market. Chicken samples were tested for Total Aerobic Count (TAC), Total Coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty offal and ground beef meat samples were collected as sold in bulk from the market and were analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software v. 23.0.
Results: The results showed that 20, 100, 20, 80, and 0% of the analyzed chicken breast samples were rejected for TAC, TC, S. aureus, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes, respectively. For chicken liver samples, 100% of the samples were rejected for TC and Salmonella spp., while all the samples were accepted for TAC, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes. E. coli O157:H7 was absent in all meat samples.
Conclusion: Some chicken samples from both certified and non-certified suppliers exceeded the standard upper limits showing hygienic concerns; whereas meat products were safe for consumption regarding the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.2.2885
Full-Text [PDF 364 kb]   (730 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 20/02/06 | Accepted: 20/04/28 | Published: 20/06/18

1. Al-Dughaym A.M., Altabari G.F. (2010). Safety and quality of some chicken meat products in Al-Ahsa markets-Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 17: 37-42. [DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2009.12.006] [DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2009.12.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Argudín M.Á., Mendoza M.C., Rodicio M.R. (2010). Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Toxins. 2: 1751-1773. [DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071751] [DOI:10.3390/toxins2071751] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Arumugaswamy R.K., Rusul G., Abdul Hamid S.N., Cheah C.T. (1995). Prevalence of Salmonella in raw and cooked foods in Malaysia. Food Microbiology. 12: 3-8. [DOI: 10.1016/S0740-0020(95)80072-7] [DOI:10.1016/S0740-0020(95)80072-7]
4. Busani L., Cigliano A., Taioli E., Caligiuri V., Chiavacci L., Di Bella C., Battisti A., Duranti A., Gianfranceschi M., Nardella M.C., Ricci A., Rolesu S., et al. (2005). Prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes contamination in foods of animal origin in Italy. Journal of Food Protection. 68: 1729-1733. [DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-68.8.1729] [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X-68.8.1729] [PMID]
5. Capita R., Alonso-Calleja C., Moreno B., García-Fernández M.C. (2001). Occurrence of Listeria species in retail poultry meat and comparison of a cultural/immunoassay for their detection. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 65: 75-82. [DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(00)00497-9] [DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00497-9]
6. Carrasco E., Morales-Rueda A., García-Gimeno R.M. (2012). Cross-contamination and recontamination by Salmonella in foods: a review. Food Research International. 45: 545-556. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.004]
7. Ceylan Z.G., Demi̇rkaya A.K., Adigüzel G. (2008). Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in retail chicken meat and establishing relationship with some bacteria by logistic regression. Journal of Food Quality. 31: 121-130. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4557. 2007.00188.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00188.x]
8. Cohen N., Ennaji H., Bouchrif B., Hassar M., Karib H. (2007). Comparative study of microbiological quality of raw poultry meat at various seasons and for different slaughtering processes in Casablanca (Morocco). Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16: 502-508. [DOI: 10.3382/japr.2006-00061] [DOI:10.3382/japr.2006-00061]
9. Cohen N., Ennaji H., Hassa M., Karib H. (2006). The bacterial quality of red meat and offal in Casablanca (Morocco). Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 50: 557-562. [DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200500180] [DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200500180] [PMID]
10. Domı́nguez C., Gómez I., Zumalacárregui J. (2002). Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in retail chicken meat in Spain. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 72: 165-168. [DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00638-9] [DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00638-9]
11. European Commission. (2005). Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. 50: 1-26.
12. Fajardo-Guerrero M., Rojas-Quintero C., Chamorro-Tobar I., Zambrano C., Sampedro F., Carrascal-Camacho A.K. (2020). Exposure assessment of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork meat from two abattoirs in Colombia. Food Science and Technology International. 26: 21-27. [DOI: 10.1177/1082013219864746] [DOI:10.1177/1082013219864746] [PMID]
13. Guran H.S., Mann D., Alali W.Q. (2017). Salmonella prevalence associated with chicken parts with and without skin from retail establishments in Atlanta metropolitan area, Georgia. Food Control. 73: 462-467. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016. 08.038] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.038]
14. Harakeh S., Yassine H., Gharios M., Barbour E., Hajjar S., El-Fadel M., Toufeili I., Tannous R. (2005). Isolation, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from meat-based fast food in Lebanon. Science of the Total Environment. 341: 33-44. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.09.025] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.09.025] [PMID]
15. Ibrahim J.N., Eghnatios E., El Roz A., Fardoun T., Ghssein G. (2019). Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for campylobacteriosis in Lebanon. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 13: 11-20. [DOI: 10.3855/jidc.10729] [DOI:10.3855/jidc.10729] [PMID]
16. International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF). (1986). Sampling for microbial analysis: principles and specific applications. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, CA. pp: 130-154.
17. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (1996). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes-Part 1: Detection Method. No. 11290-1.
18. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (1999). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species)-Part 1: Technique using Baird-Parker agar medium. No. 6888-1.
19. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2002). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. No. ISO 6579.
20. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2013). Microbiology of the food chain. horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms- colony count technique at 30 degrees °C by the pour plate technique. No. 4833-1.
21. Jarvis N.A., O'Bryan C.A., Dawoud T.M., Park S.H., Kwon Y.M., Crandall P.G., Ricke S.C. (2016). An overview of Salmonella thermal destruction during food processing and preparation. Food Control. 68: 280-290. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016. 04.006] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.006]
22. Kamleh R., Jurdi M., Annous B.A. (2012). Management of microbial food safety in Arab countries. Journal of Food Protection. 75: 2082-2090. [DOI: 10.4315/0362-028XJFP-11-405] [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-405] [PMID]
23. Kayisoglu S., Yilmaz I., Demirci M., Yetim H. (2003). Chemical composition and microbiological quality of the Doner Kebabs sold in Tekirdag market. Food Control. 14: 469-474. [DOI: 10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00103-2] [DOI:10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00103-2]
24. Kim J.H., Yim D.G. (2016). Assessment of the microbial level for livestock products in retail meat shops implementing HACCP system. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources. 36: 594-600. [DOI: 10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.5.594] [DOI:10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.5.594] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Kozačinski L., Hadžiosmanović M., Zdolec N. (2006). Microbiological quality of poultry meat on the Croatian market. Veterinarski Arhiv. 76: 305-313.
26. Lebanese Standards Institution (LIBNOR). (2006). Fresh Poultry-Microbiological Quality. Lebanon.
27. Li Y., Pei X., Zhang X., Wu L., Liu Y., Zhou H., Ma G., Chen Q., Liang H., Yang D. (2019). A surveillance of microbiological contamination on raw poultry meat at retail markets in China. Food Control. 104: 99-104. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019. 04.037] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.04.037]
28. Luber P. (2009). Cross-contamination versus undercooking of poultry meat or eggs-which risks need to be managed first? International Journal of Food Microbiology. 134: 21-28. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.02.012] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.02.012] [PMID]
29. Madden R.H., Moran L., Scates P., Mcbride J., Kelly C. (2011). Prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken on retail sale in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Food Protection. 74: 1912-1916. [DOI: 10.4315/0362-028XJFP-11-104] [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-104] [PMID]
30. Nyarugwe S.P., Linnemann A.R., Luning P.A. (2020). Prevailing food safety culture in companies operating in a transition economy-Does product riskiness matter? Food Control. 107: 106803. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106803] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.106803]
31. Odwar J.A., Kikuvi G., Kariuki J.N., Kariuki S. (2014). A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meats sold in Nairobi, Kenya. BMC Research Notes. 7: 627. [DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-7-627] [DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-627] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Osaili T.M., Alaboudi A.R., Nesiar E.A. (2011). Prevalence of Listeria spp. and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw chicken and ready-to-eat chicken products in Jordan. Food Control. 22: 586-590. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.10.008] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.10.008]
33. Phillips D., Sumner J., Alexander J.F., Dutton K.M. (2001). Microbiological quality of Australian beef. Journal of Food Protection. 64: 692-696. [DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X-64.5.692] [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X-64.5.692] [PMID]
34. Powell D.A., Jacob C.J., Chapman B.J. (2011). Enhancing food safety culture to reduce rates of foodborne illness. Food Control. 22: 817-822. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.12.009] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.12.009]
35. Rangel J.M., Sparling P.H., Crowe C., Griffin P.M., Swerdlow D.L. (2005). Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11: 603-609. [DOI: 10.3201/eid1104.040739] [DOI:10.3201/eid1104.040739] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Schwaiger K., Huther S., Hölzel C., Kämpf P., Bauer J. (2012). Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from chicken and pork meat purchased at the slaughterhouse and at retail in Bavaria, Germany. International Journalof Food Microbiology. 154: 206-211. [DOI: 10.1016/j. ijfoodmicro.2011.12.014] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.12.014] [PMID]
37. Sharma J., Kumar D., Hussain S., Pathak A., Shukla M., Kumar V.P., Anisha P.N., Rautela R., Upadhyay A.K., Singh S.P. (2019). Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes characterization of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from retail chicken meat shops in Northern India. Food Control. 102: 104-111. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.01.021] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2019.01.021]
38. Stampi S., Caprioli A., De Luca G., Quaglio P., Sacchetti R., Zanetti F. (2004). Detection of Escherichia coli O157 in bovine meat products in northern Italy. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 90: 257-262. [DOI: 10.1016/S0 168-1605(03) 00308-8] [DOI:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00308-8]
39. Thapaliya D., Forshey B.M., Kadariya J., Quick M.K., Farina S., O'Brien A., Nair R., Nworie A., Hanson B., Kates A., Wardyn S., Smith T.C. (2017). Prevalence and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available meat over a one-year period in Iowa, USA. Food Microbiology. 65: 122-129. [DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2017.01.015] [DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2017.01.015] [PMID]
40. Ulukanli Z., Çavli P., Tuzcu M. (2006). Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from beef Doner Kebabs sold in Kars. Gazi University Journal of Science. 19: 99-104.
41. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (2012). Detection, isolation and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from meat products and carcass and environmental sponges. Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook.
42. Van Nierop W., Dusé A.G., Marais E., Aithma N., Thothobolo N., Kassel M., Stewart R., Potgieter A., Fernandes B., Galpin J.S., Bloomfield S.F. (2005). Contamination of chicken carcasses in Gauteng, South Africa, by Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 99: 1-6. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro. 2004.06.009] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.06.009] [PMID]
43. Zhou G.H., Xu X.L., Liu Y. (2010). Preservation technologies for fresh meat-a review. Meat Science. 86: 119-128. [DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.033] [DOI:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.033] [PMID]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.