Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2018)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2018, 5(4): 134-139 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Dada E, Osidipe V, Iyaomolere K, Itoje S, Akinola M. Concentrations of Phthalates and Metals in Commercially Packaged Sachet and Plastic Bottled Water Sold in Lagos, Nigeria. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2018; 5 (4) :134-139
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-483-en.html
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Environmental Biology Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria , eodada@unilag.edu.ng
Abstract:   (81 Views)
Background: In many developing countries, numerous brands of bottled water and the relatively cheaper counterpart, sachet water, can be found in all cities, towns, and even villages. This study assessed the concentrations of some phthalates and metals in bottled and sachet water sold in Lagos, Nigeria.
Methods: Fifteen pieces of plastic bottled water and 15 pieces of sachet water were randomly obtained from different street vendors in Lagos, Nigeria. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the levels of dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), and dibutylphthalate (DBP). Also, atomic absorption spectroscopy assay was applied in order to assess the contents of metals, including zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). All statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS (version 20).
Results: The mean concentrations of DMP, DEP, and DBP in bottled water samples were 0.564±0.074, 0.248±0.166, and 0.042±0.049 mg/L, respectively; these rates for sachet water samples were 0.803±0.049, 0.243±0.035, and 0.160±0.073 mg/L, respectively. Some significant differences (p<0.01) were found between phthalates concentrations of various water brands. The mean DMP concentration of sachet water samples was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of bottled waters. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd in the samples were within the acceptable limits.
Conclusion: The higher concentrations of phthalates in sachet water relative to bottled water indicate that drinking sachet water may pose higher risk of phthalates exposure.

DOI: 10.29252/jfqhc.5.4.4
Full-Text [PDF 416 kb]   (42 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 18/08/11 | Accepted: 18/11/05 | Published: 18/12/28

References
1. Al-Saleh I., Shinwari N., Alsabbaheen A. (2011). Phthalates residues in plastic bottled waters. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 36: 469-478. [DOI:10.2131/jts.36.469] [PMID]
2. Dada E.O., Ikeh R.K. (2018). Phthalate and metal concentrations in drinking water in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution. 8: 180603. [DOI:10.5696/2156-9614-8.18.30] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Danso-Boateng E., Frimpong I.K. (2013). Quality analysis of plastic sachet and bottled water brands produced or sold in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2: 2222-2232.
4. Doria M.F. (2006). Bottled water versus tap water: understanding consumers' preferences. Journal of Water and Health. 4: 271-276. [DOI:10.2166/wh.2006.0023] [PMID]
5. Fisher M.B., Williams A.R., Jalloh M.F., Saquee G., Bain R.E.S., Bartram J.K. (2015). Microbiological and chemical quality of packaged sachet water and household stored drinking water in Freetown, Sierra Leone. PLoS ONE. 10: doi:10.137/journal.pone.0131772 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131772]
6. Kanchanamayoon W., Prapatpong P., Chumwangwapee S., Chaithongrat S. (2012). Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11: 16263-16269. [DOI:10.5897/AJB11.3584]
7. Keresztes S., Tatar E., Czegeny Z., Zaray G., Mihucz V.G. (2013). Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water. Science of the Total Environment. 458-460: 451-458. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.056] [PMID]
8. Kumar M., Puri A. (2012). A review of permissible limits of drinking water. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 16: 40-44. [DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.99696] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Lee B.M., Koo H.J. (2007). Hershberger assay for antiandrogenic effects of phthalates. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 70: 1365-1370. [DOI:10.1080/15287390701432285] [PMID]
10. Leivadara S.V., Nikolaou A.D., Lekkas T.D. (2008). Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters. Food Chemistry. 108: 277-286. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.031]
11. Matsumoto M., Hirata-Koizumi M., Ema M. (2008). Potential adverse effects of phthalic acid esters on human health: a review of recent studies on reproduction. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 50: 37-49. [DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2007.09.004] [PMID]
12. Mojekeh M.O., Eze P.A.O. (2011). The environmental impact of production and sales of sachet water in Nigeria. African Research Review. 5: 479-492. [DOI:10.4314/afrrev.v5i4.69298]
13. Oghenekohwiroro E., Godwin A.I., Bassey U. (2016). Evaluation of phthalates contents and their health effects in consumed sachet water brands in Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering. 10: 91-96.
14. Onweluzo J.C., Akuagbazie C.A. (2010). Assessment of the quality of bottled and sachet water sold in Nsukka town. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. 9: 104-110.
15. Prapatpong P., Kanchanamayoon W. (2010). Determination of phthalate esters in drinking water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography. Journal of Applied Sciences. 10: 1987-1990. [DOI:10.3923/jas.2010.1987.1990]
16. Staples C.A. (2003). Phthalate esters: the handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Berlin.
17. Uduma A.U., Uduma M.B. (2014). Physicochemical analysis of the quality of sachet water consumed in Kano Metropolis. American Journal of Environment, Energy Power Research. 2: 1-10.
18. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (1991). National primary drinking water regulations. Part 141, USEPA, Washington DC.
19. Venkatesan K.D., Balaji M., Victor K. (2014). Microbiological analysis of packaged drinking water sold in Chennai. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health. 3: 472-476. [DOI:10.5455/ijmsph.2014.150220143]
20. Wittassek M., Angerer J. (2008). Phthalates: metabolism and exposure. International Journal of Andrology. 31: 131-138. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00837.x] [PMID]
21. World Health Organization (WHO). (2003a). Chromium in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.
22. World Health Organization (WHO). (2003b). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.
23. World Health Organization (WHO). (2003c). Zinc in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.
24. World Health Organization (WHO). (2011a). Cadminum in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.
25. World Health Organization (WHO). (2011b). Lead in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb