Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2019)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2019, 6(2): 45-52 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Francesca N, Guarcello R, Craparo V, Moschetti G, Settanni L, Gaglio R. Microbial Ecology of Retail Ready-to-Eat Escarole and Red Chicory Sold in Palermo City, Italy. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2019; 6 (2) :45-52
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-543-en.html
Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze 4, 90128 Palermo, Italy , raimondo.gaglio@unipa.it
Abstract:   (195 Views)
Background: Ready-To-Eat (RTE) foods include any edible food that is commonly consumed raw. This study aimed at evaluation of microbial ecology of retail RTE escarole and red chicory sold in Palermo city, Italy.
Methods: A total of 32 mono-varietal RTE samples, including escarole (n=16) and red chicory (n=16) samples were obtained from Palermo, Italy. Both RTE vegetables at expiry date were analyzed to quantify spoilage bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and yeast. All different colonies were isolated and identified on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and genetic polymorphisms by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and further genotype by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.2 software (Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
Results: The level of Listeria monocytogenes and coagulase-positive staphylococci were below the detection. Total microbial counts were above 8 log10 colony forming unit/g in RTE red chicory, while they were about 1 log cycle lower in escarole. In general, escarole showed lower levels for all microbial groups than red chicory with the exception of the total yeast. A total of 13 strains were identified into ten species belonging to six genera as Bacillus, Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, and Rahnella. The most numerous identified genera were Pseudomonas and Pantoea.
Conclusion: This work pointed out the relevance of implementing good hygiene practices during processing in order to prolong quality parameters and acceptability of mono-varietal salads.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.6.2.954
Full-Text [PDF 486 kb]   (88 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 18/09/01 | Accepted: 19/01/14 | Published: 19/06/01

References
1. Abadias M., Usall J., Anguera M., Solsona C., Viñas I. (2008). Microbiological quality of fresh, minimally-processed fruit and vegetables, and sprouts from retail establishments. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 123: 121-129. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.12.013] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.12.013] [PMID]
2. Abraham W.P., Thomas S. (2015). Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas psychrophila MTCC 12324, isolated from the Arctic at 79 N. Genome Announcements. 3: e00578-15. [DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00578-15] [DOI:10.1128/genomeA.00578-15] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Alfonzo A., Gaglio R., Miceli A., Francesca N., Di Gerlando R., Moschetti G., Settanni L. (2018). Shelf life evaluation of fresh-cut red chicory subjected to different minimal processes. Food Microbiology. 73: 298-304. [DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.02. 008] [DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2018.02.008] [PMID]
4. Behrendt U., Ulrich A., Schumann P. (2003). Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. nov., Pseudomonas poae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas congelans sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53: 1461-1469. [DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02567-0] [DOI:10.1099/ijs.0.02567-0] [PMID]
5. Bencardino D., Vitali L.A., Petrelli D. (2018). Microbiological evaluation of ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce during shelf-life and effectiveness of household washing methods. Italian Journal of Food Safety. 7: 6913. [DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2018.6913] [DOI:10.4081/ijfs.2018.6913] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Brady C., Hunter G., Kirk S., Arnold D., Denman S. (2014). Rahnella victoriana sp. nov., Rahnella bruchi sp. nov., Rahnella woolbedingensis sp. nov., classification of Rahnella genomospecies 2 and 3 as Rahnella variigena sp. nov. and Rahnella inusitata sp. nov., respectively and emended description of the genus Rahnella. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 37: 545-552. [DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2014.09.001] [DOI:10.1016/j.syapm.2014.09.001] [PMID]
7. Brady C.L., Venter S.N., Cleenwerck I., Engelbeen K., Vancanneyt M., Swings J., Coutinho T.A. (2009). Pantoea vagans sp. nov., Pantoea eucalypti sp. nov., Pantoea deleyi sp. nov. and Pantoea anthophila sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 59: 2339-2345. [DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.009241-0] [DOI:10.1099/ijs.0.009241-0] [PMID]
8. Buss S.N., Starlin R., Iwen P.C. (2014). Bacteremia caused by Microbacterium binotii in a patient with sickle cell anemia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 52: 379-381. [DOI: 10.1128/JCM.02443-13] [DOI:10.1128/JCM.02443-13] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Cerna-Cortes J.F., Leon-Montes N., Cortes-Cueto A.L., Salas-Rangel L.P., Helguera-Repetto A.C., Lopez-Hernandez D., Rivera-Gutiérrez S., Fernández-Rendón E., Gonzalez-y-Merchand J.A. (2015). Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat vegetables collected in Mexico City: occurrence of aerobic-mesophilic bacteria, fecal coliforms, and potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria. BioMed Research International. 2015: 789508. [DOI: 10.1155/2015/789508] [DOI:10.1155/2015/789508] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Choma C., Guinebretière M.H., Carlin F., Schmitt P., Velge P., Granum P.E., Nguyen-The C. (2000). Prevalence, characterization and growth of Bacillus cereus in commercial cooked chilled foods containing vegetables. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 88: 617-625. [DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000. 00998.x] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00998.x] [PMID]
11. Commission Regulation. (2005). Commission regulation no 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European :union:. 338: 1-26.
12. De Baere T., Verhelst R., Labit C., Verschraegen G., Wauters G., Claeys G., Vaneechoutte M. (2004). Bacteremic infection with Pantoea ananatis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 42: 4393-4395. [DOI: 10.1128/JCM.42.9.4393-4395.2004] [DOI:10.1128/JCM.42.9.4393-4395.2004] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. De Giusti M., Aurigemma C., Marinelli L., Tufi D., De Medici D., Di Pasquale S., De Vito C., Boccia A. (2010). The evaluation of the microbial safety of fresh ready‐to‐eat vegetablesproduced by different technologies in Italy. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 109: 996-1006. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04727.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04727.x] [PMID]
14. de Oliveira M.A., de Souza V.M., Bergamini A.M.M., De Martinis E.C.P. (2011). Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat minimally processed vegetables consumed in Brazil. Food Control. 22: 1400-1403. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.02.020] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.02.020]
15. Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO and WHO). (2004). Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. (FAO and WHO), Geneva.
16. Francesca N., Cirlincione F., Barbaccia P., Ciminata A., Gaglio R., Moschetti G., Settanni L. (2018). Survey of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas isolated from fresh cut red chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae). Medicine Papers. 4: 43-47.
17. Franzetti L., Scarpellini M. (2007). Characterisation of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from foods. Annals of Microbiology. 57: 39-47. [DOI: 10.1007/BF03175048] [DOI:10.1007/BF03175048]
18. Gaglio R., Francesca N., Di Gerlando R., Mahony J., De Martino S., Stucchi C., Moschetti G., Settanni L. (2017). Enteric bacteria of food ice and their survival in alcoholic beverages and soft drinks. Food Microbiology. 67: 17-22. [DOI: 10.1016/j.fm. 2017.04.020] [DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2017.04.020] [PMID]
19. Giugliano D., Esposito K. (2008). Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Current Opinion in Internal Medicine. 7: 149-154. [DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2fa4d] [DOI:10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2fa4d] [PMID]
20. Gregersen T. (1978). Rapid method for distinction of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacteria. European Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 5: 123-127. [DOI: 10.1007/BF00498806] [DOI:10.1007/BF00498806]
21. Huang S., Sheng P., Zhang H. (2012). Isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 13: 2563-2577. [DOI: 10.3390/ijms 13032563] [DOI:10.3390/ijms]
22. Jiang B., Cui D., Li A., Gai Z., Ma F., Yang J., Ren N. (2012). Genome sequence of a cold-adaptable sulfamethoxazole-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas psychrophila HA-4. Journal of Bacteriology. 194: 5721. [DOI: 10.1128/JB.01377-12] [DOI:10.1128/JB.01377-12] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. La Scalia G., Aiello G., Miceli A., Nasca A., Alfonzo A., Settanni L. (2016). Effect of vibration on the quality of strawberry fruits caused by simulated transport. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 39: 140-156. [DOI: 10.1111/jfpe.12207] [DOI:10.1111/jfpe.12207]
24. La Scalia G., Nasca A., Corona O., Settanni L., Micale R. (2017). An innovative shelf life model based on smart logistic unit for an efficient management of the perishable food supply chain. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 40: e12311. [DOI: 10.1111/jfpe.12311] [DOI:10.1111/jfpe.12311]
25. Lavelli V., Pagliarini E., Ambrosoli R., Zanoni B. (2009). Quality of minimally processed red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) evaluated by anthocyanin content, radical scavenging activity, sensory descriptors and microbial indices. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44: 994-1001. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01835.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01835.x]
26. Mercanoglu Taban B., Halkman A.K. (2011). Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens? Anaerobe. 17: 286-287. [DOI: 10.1016/ j.anaerobe.2011.04.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.04.004] [PMID]
27. Miceli A., Gaglio R., Francesca N., Ciminata A., Moschetti G., Settanni L. (2019). Evolution of shelf life parameters of ready-to-eat escarole (Cichorium endivia var. latifolium) subjected to different cutting operations. Scientia Horticulturae. 247: 175-183. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.12.023] [DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2018.12.023]
28. Miceli A., Settanni L. (2019). Influence of agronomic practices and pre-harvest conditions on the attachment and development of Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables. Annals of Microbiology. 69: 185-199. [DOI: 10.1007/s13213-019-1435-6] [DOI:10.1007/s13213-019-1435-6]
29. Puerta-Gomez A.F., Moreira R.G., Kim J., Castell-Perez E. (2013). Modeling the growth rates of Escherichia coli spp. and Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in baby spinach leaves under slow cooling. Food Control. 29: 11-17. [DOI: 10.1016/j. foodcont. 2012.05.070] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.05.070]
30. Scatassa M.L., Carrozzo, A., Ducato B., Giosuè C., Miraglia V., Arcuri L., Mancuso I. (2011). Bacillus cereus: isolation in jennet milk. Italian Journal of Food Safety.1: 243-246. [DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.872] [DOI:10.4081/ijfs.2011.1S.243]
31. Settanni L., Gaglio R., Stucchi C., De Martino S., Francesca N., Moschetti G. (2017). Presence of pathogenic bacteria in ice cubes and evaluation of their survival in different systems. Annals of Microbiology. 67: 827-835. [DOI: 10.1007/s13213-017-1311-1] [DOI:10.1007/s13213-017-1311-1]
32. Siriamornpun S., Kaisoon O., Meeso N. (2012). Changes in colour, antioxidant activities and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene, lutein) of marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) resulting from different drying processes. Journal of Functional Foods. 4: 757-766. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2012.05.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.05.002]
33. Tsironi T., Dermesonlouoglou E., Giannoglou M., Gogou E., Katsaros G., Taoukis P. (2017). Shelf-life prediction models for ready-to-eat fresh cut salads: testing in real cold chain. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 240: 131-140. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.09.032] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.09.032] [PMID]
34. Weisburg W.G., Barns S.M., Pelletier D.A., Lane D.J. (1991). 16S ribosomal DNA amplification for phylogenetic study. Journal of Bacteriology. 173: 697-703. [DOI: 10.1128/jb.173.2.697-703.1991] [DOI:10.1128/jb.173.2.697-703.1991] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Yumoto I., Kusano T., Shingyo T., Nodasaka Y., Matsuyama H., Okuyama H. (2001). Assignment of Pseudomonas sp. strain E-3 to Pseudomonas psychrophila sp. nov., a new facultatively psychrophilic bacterium. Extremophiles. 5: 343-349. [DOI: 10.1007/s007920100199] [DOI:10.1007/s007920100199] [PMID]
36. Zare Jeddi M., Yunesian M., Es'haghi Gorji M., Noori N., Pourmand M.R., Jahed Khaniki G.R. (2014). Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 32: 391-399.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb