Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2024)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2024, 11(1): 4-12 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: UHAS-REC A.4 [246] 18-19


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Aboagye G, Akpaloo P, Avle T. Microbial Quality and Mineral Content of Water Consumed in Ho Municipality of Volta Region, Ghana. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2024; 11 (1) :4-12
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-1050-en.html
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana , gaboagye@uhas.edu.gh
Abstract:   (168 Views)
Background: Water quality and safety are fundamental to human development and well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the bacteriological and mineral content of water in Ho, the capital city of the Volta Region of Ghana.
Methods: Sachet, bottled, and tap water were sampled from January to February in 2019 due to the high rate of consumption and their presumed quality which were taken at random from five different locations throughout the municipality. Water quality assessment protocols were utilized to ascertain the bacteriological as well as mineral contents of the samples, whilst ANOVA was used to determine statistical difference and significance at p<0.05.
Results: The maximum Heterotrophic Plate Count for tap water was 9.95±0.64×105 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml, for sachet water was 7.46±0.09×106 CFU/ml, and for bottled water was 1.10±0.56×105 CFU/ml, all obtained on nutrient agar. For MacConkey agar, maximum growth was 2.94±0.03×106, 9.42±1.67×106, and 2.31±0.77×105 CFU/ml for tap, sachet, and bottled water, respectively. The Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar indicated maximum growth of 1.84±0.34×103, 5.72±0.06×106, and 5.50±2.12×104 CFU/ml for tap, sachet, and bottled water, respectively.
The physical parameters such as pH, turbidity, color, and conductivity were within the recommended limits set by the Ghana Standards Authority. However, tap water recorded the highest turbidity, bottled water recorded the highest and least pH and turbidity, respectively. Moreover, the mineral analysis revealed high levels of phosphate (PO₄³⁻), chloride (Cl-), and sodium (Na) in bottled water, and total iron (Fe) was relatively high in several tap and sachet water samples, the latter item also recorded the highest for ammonia (NH3).
Conclusions: Overall, the tap, sachet, and bottled water samples exhibited varied levels of microbial, and mineral contents whilst the physical parameters were relatively within the recommended levels. The sachet and tap water were the least wholesome in comparison with the bottled water samples.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.11.1.14991
Full-Text [PDF 489 kb]   (174 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 23/08/30 | Accepted: 24/02/28 | Published: 24/03/26

References
1. Appiah-Effah E., Ahenkorah E.N., Duku G.A., Nyarko K.B. (2021). Domestic drinking water management: quality assessment in Oforikrom municipality, Ghana. Science Progress. 104: 1-26. [DOI: 10.1177/00368504211035997] [DOI:10.1177/00368504211035997] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Bancessi A., Catarino L., Silva M.J., Ferreira A., Duarte E., Nazareth T. (2020). Quality assessment of three types of drinking water sources in Guinea-Bissau. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17: 7254. [DOI: 10.3390/ ijerph17197254] [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17197254] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Bartram J., Cotruvo J., Exner M., Fricker C., Glasmacher A. (2003). Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety: the significance of HPCs for water quality and human health. IWA Publishing, London. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.08.005] [PMID]
4. Bhawan P. (2007). Guidelines for water quality monitoring. Central Pollution Control Board. (CPCB), East Arjun Nagar, Delhi-32. URL: https://cpcb.nic.in/ openpdffile.php?id=UmVwb3J0RmlsZXMvTmV3SXRlbV8xMTZfR3VpZGVsaW5lc29mIHdhdGVycXVhbGl0eW1vbml0b3JpbmdfMzEuMDcuMDgucGRm.
5. Burk K.C. (2024). Bio 221 lab: introduction to microbiology. pp: 269-271. URL:https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/ College_of_ the_Canyons/Bio_221Lab%3A_Introduction_to_Microbiology_(Burke)/26%3A_Bacterial_Examination_of_Water_Multiple_Tube_Test_Standard_Plate_Count_and_Membrane_Filter_Technique/26.04%3A_Materials_and_Procedures.
6. Douterelo I., Husband S., Loza V., Boxall J. (2016). Dynamics of biofilm regrowth in drinking water distribution systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82: 4155-4168. [DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00109-16] [DOI:10.1128/AEM.00109-16] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Ehlers M.M., Van Zyl W.B., Pavlov D.N., Müller E.E. (2004). Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Water SA. 30: 203-210. [DOI:10.4314/wsa.v30i2.5065]
8. Ghana Standards Authority. (2021). Water quality - specification for drinking water. DGS 175:2021. URL: https://www.gsa.gov.gh/ wp-content/uploads/2021/03/DGS-175_2021.pdf.
9. Ghana Statistical Service. (2011). 2010 population and housing census. Ghana Statistical Service. URL: https://unstats.un.org/ unsd/ demographic-social/census/documents/ Ghana/ Provisional_ results.pdf.
10. Hall R.P., Van Koppen B., Van Houweling E. (2014). The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights. Science and Engineering Ethics. 20: 849-868. [DOI: 10.1007/s11948-013-9499-3] [DOI:10.1007/s11948-013-9499-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Kasozi K.I., Namubiru S., Kamugisha R., Eze E.D., Tayebwa D.S., Ssempijja F., Okpanachi A.O., Kinyi H.W., Atusiimirwe J.K., Suubo J., Fernandez E.M., Nshakira N., et al. (2019). Safety of drinking water from primary water sources and implications for the general public in Uganda. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2019. [DOI: 10.1155/2019/7813962] [DOI:10.1155/2019/7813962] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Kgopa P.M., Mashela P.W., Manyevere A. (2021). Microbial quality of treated wastewater and borehole water used for irrigation in a semi-arid area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18: 8861. [DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168861] [DOI:10.3390/ijerph18168861] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Makokove R., Macherera M., Kativhu T., Gudo D.F. (2022). The effect of household practices on the deterioration of microbial quality of drinking water between source and point of use in Murewa district, Zimbabwe. Journal of Water and Health. 20: 518-530. [DOI: 10.2166/wh.2022.251] [DOI:10.2166/wh.2022.251] [PMID]
14. Mohammed H., Tornyeviadzi H.M., Seidu R. (2021). Modelling the impact of weather parameters on the microbial quality of water in distribution systems. Journal of Environmental Management. 284: 111997. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111997] [DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111997] [PMID]
15. Mor S.M., Griffiths J.K. (2011). Water-related diseases in the developing world. Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. 741-753. [DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52272-6.00278-6] [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-52272-6.00278-6]
16. Ngwai Y.B., Sounyo A.A., Fiabema S.M., Agadah G.A., Ibeakuzie T.O. (2010). Bacteriological safety of plastic-bagged sachet drinking water sold in Amassoma, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 3: 555-559. [DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60134-4] [DOI:10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60134-4]
17. Ojo O.A., Bakare S.B., Babatunde A.O. (2008). Microbial and chemical analysis of potable water in public - water supply within Lagos University, Ojo. African Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1: 30-35. [DOI: 10.4314/ajid.v1i1.42083] [DOI:10.4314/ajid.v1i1.42083]
18. Okagbue R.N., Dlamini N.R., Siwela M., Mpofu F. (2002). Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Health Sciences. 9: 99-103.
19. Osei A.S., Newman M.J., Mingle J.A.A., Ayeh-Kumi P.F., Kwasi M.O. (2013). Microbiological quality of packaged water sold in Accra, Ghana. Food Control. 31: 172-175. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.08.025] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.08.025]
20. Oyedeji O., Olutiola P.O., Moninuola M.A. (2010). Microbiological quality of packaged drinking water brands marketed in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife city in south western Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 4: 096-102.
21. Patil P.N., Sawant D.V., Deshmukh R.N. (2012). Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water - a review. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 3: 1194-1207.
22. Rahmanian N., Ali S.H.B., Homayoonfard M., Ali N.J., Rehan M., Sadef Y., Nizami A.S. (2015). Analysis of physiochemical parameters to evaluate the drinking water quality in the state of Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry. 2015. [DOI: 10.1155/2015/716125] [DOI:10.1155/2015/716125]
23. Rice E.W., Baird R.B., Eaton A.D. (2017). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 23rd edition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington, D.C.
24. Royal Australian Chemical Institute (RACI). (2019). A guide to titration. URL: https://raci.org.au/common/Uploaded% 20files/Website%20files/School/Titration/A%20Guide%20to%20Titration%20(Updated%20Feb%202020).pdf.
25. Sanders E.R. (2012). Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 63: e3064. [DOI: 10.3791/3064] [DOI:10.3791/3064]
26. Stoler J., Weeks J.R., Fink G. (2012). Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra- Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2: 223-240. [DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2012.104] [DOI:10.2166/washdev.2012.104] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Thompson T., Fawell J., Kunikane S., Jackson D., Appleyard S., Callan P., Bartram J., Kingston P. (2007). Chemical safety of drinking-water: assessing priorities of risk management.World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
28. Wang H., Edwards M., Falkinham J.O., Pruden A. (2012). Molecular survey of the occurrence of legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and amoeba hosts in two chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 78: 6285-6294. [DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01492-12] [DOI:10.1128/AEM.01492-12] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. World Health Organization (WHO). (2023). Drinking-water. URL: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water.
30. World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 3rd edition. 1. WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. URL: https://www.epa.gov/ sites/default/files/2014-03/documents/guidelines_for_ drinking_water_quality_3v.pdf.
31. World Health Organization, Unicef. (2008). Progress on drinking water and sanitation: special focus on sanitation. World Health Organization, Geneva. URL: https://iris.who.int/handle/ 10665/ 43931.
32. World Health Organization, Unicef. (2014). Progress on drinking-water and sanitation - 2014 Update. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland. URL: file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/Progress%20on% 20 Drinking%20Water%20and%20Sanitation_Statistical%20table.pdf.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb