Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2020, 7(3): 128-135 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Omari R, Anyebuno G. Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize-Groundnuts Complementary Foods Consumed by Ghanaian Infants. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2020; 7 (3) :128-135
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-609-en.html
CSIR-Science and Technology Policy Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box CT 519 Cantonments, Accra, Ghana , romari@csir-stepri.org
Abstract:   (193 Views)
Background: Complementary foods are given to infants when breast milk alone becomes insufficient in meeting their nutritional needs. The major objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aflatoxins (AFs) in Weanimix complementary foods purchased from shops in Accra (Ghana), and to estimate risk of liver cancer development in infants. 
Methods: In total, 32 samples of Weanimix were purchased from shops in Accra, an urban centre and analyzed for AFs by Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Previously published data on levels of AFs in Weanimix prepared in rural households were also collected. The data was analyzed to estimate infants’ daily exposure to AFs as well as the risk of liver cancer development.
Results: AFs levels of 18.8% of samples were above the maximum permitted limit of 10 µg/kg. The minimum and maximum levels of total AFs detected in all samples were 2.51 and 98.87 µg/kg, respectively with a mean value of 16.43 µg/kg. Exposure assessment showed that the minimum and maximum daily AFs exposures were 0.044 and 2.805 µg/kg bw/d, respectively for Weanimix from rural households; these rates for Weanimix purchased from urban shops were 0.014 and 0.55 µg/kg bw/d, respectively. The chances of liver cancer development would increase to 0.6 per year if infants were fed on Weanimix prepared in rural households with minimum AF level of 7.9 µg/kg.
Conclusion: The infants fed on Weanimix prepared in rural households would be at a higher risk of AF exposure and liver cancer development than infants fed on Weanimix purchased from urban shops of Ghana.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.3.4144
Full-Text [PDF 483 kb]   (72 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 19/10/13 | Accepted: 20/05/04 | Published: 20/09/22

1. Adetunji M.C., Atanda O.O., Ezekiel C.N. (2017). Risk assessment of mycotoxins in stored maize grains consumed by infants and young children in Nigeria. Children. 4: 58. [DOI:10.3390/ children4070058] [DOI:10.3390/children4070058] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Adetunji M., Atanda O., Ezekiel C.N., Sulyok M., Warth B., Beltrán E., Krska R., Obadina O., Bakare A., Chilaka C.A. (2014). Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zeamays, L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Mycotoxin Research. 30: 89-102. [DOI: 10.1007/s12550-014-0194-2] [DOI:10.1007/s12550-014-0194-2] [PMID]
3. Aidoo K.E., Mohamed S.M., Candlish A.A., Tester R.F., Elgerbi A.M. (2011). Occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in some commercial baby foods in North Africa. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2: 751-758. [DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27103] [DOI:10.4236/fns.2011.27103]
4. Bediako K.A., Ofori K., Offei S.K., Dzidzienyo D., Asibuo J.Y., Amoah R.A. (2019). Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.): predisposing factors and management interventions. Food Control. 98: 61-67. [DOI: 10.1016/j. foodcont.2018.11.020] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.11.020]
5. Blankson G.K., Mills-Robertson F.C. (2016). Aflatoxin contamination and exposure in processed cereal-based complementary foods for infants and young children in greater Accra, Ghana. Food Control. 64: 212-217. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015. 12.032] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.12.032]
6. Blankson G.K., Mills-Robertson F.C., Ofosu I.W. (2019). Survey of occurrence levels of aflatoxins in selected locally processed cereal-based foods for human consumption from Ghana. Food Control. 95: 170-175. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.08.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.08.005]
7. Cleveland T.E., Dowd P.F., Desjardins A.E., Bhatnagar D., Cotty P.J. (2003). United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops. Pest Management Science. 59: 629-642. [DOI: 10.1002/ps.724] [DOI:10.1002/ps.724] [PMID]
8. Embry M.R., Bachman A.N., Bell D.R., Boobis A.R., Cohen S.M., Dellarco M., Dewhurst I.C., Doerrer N.G., Hines R.N., Moretto A., Pastoor T.P., Phillips R.D., et al. (2014). Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 44: 6-16. [DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014. 931924] [DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014.931924] [PMID]
9. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2007). Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the potential increase of consumer health risk by a possible increase of the existing maximum levels for aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts and pistachios and derived products. European Food Safety Authority Journal. 446: 1-127. [DOI:10.2903/j.efsa.2007.446]
10. Ferlay J., Soerjomataram I., Dikshit R., Eser S., Mathers C., Rebelo M., Parkin D.M., Forman D., Bray F. (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. International Journal of Cancer. 136: 359-386. [DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29210] [DOI:10.1002/ijc.29210] [PMID]
11. Ghana Profiles. (2011). Overview of 2011 Ghana nutrition profiles results. URL: https://www.fantaproject.org/sites/default/files/ resources/Ghana-Overview-PROFILES-Feb2013.pdf. Ac-cessed 11 August 2019.
12. Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS), ICF International. (2015). Ghana demographic and health survey 2014. Rockville, Maryland. URL: https://dhsprogram. com/pubs/pdf/fr307/fr307.pdf. Accessed 10 September 2019.
13. Gong Y., Hounsa A., Egal S., Turner P.C., Sutcliffe A.E., Hall A.J., Cardwell K., Wild C.P. (2004). Post-weaning exposure to aflatoxin results in impaired child growth: a longitudinal study in Benin, West Africa. Children's Health. 112: 1334-1338. [DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6954] [DOI:10.1289/ehp.6954] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Gruber-Dorninger C., Jenkins T., Schatzmayr G. (2018). Multi-mycotoxin screening of feed and feed raw materials from Africa. World Mycotoxin Journal. 11: 369-383. [DOI: 10.3920/WMJ2017.2292] [DOI:10.3920/WMJ2017.2292]
15. Hell K., Cardwell K.F., Poehling H.M. (2003). Relationship between management practices, fungal infection and aflatoxin for stored maize in Benin. Journal of Phytopathology. 151: 690-698. [DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0434.2003.00792.x] [DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2003.00792.x]
16. International Food Policy Research Institute. (2018). Aflatoxins in food and feed impacts, risks, and management strategies. Gender, Climate Change, and Nutrition Integration Initiative (GCAN). URL: http://gcan.ifpri.info/files/2018/07/GCAN-Aflatoxins_Note-9_web.pdf. Accessed 4 October 2019.
17. Iqbal M., Abbas M., Adil M., Nazir A., Ahmad I. (2019). Aflatoxins biosynthesis, toxicity and intervention strategies: a review. Chemistry International. 5: 168-191. [DOI: 10.2139/ssrn. 3407341] [DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3407341]
18. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). (2001). Safety evaluation of certain mycotoxins in food; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Roma, Italy.
19. Kimanya M.E., Shirima C.P., Magoha H., Shewiyo D.H., De Meulenaer B., Kolsteren P., Gong Y.Y. (2014). Co-exposures of aflatoxins with deoxynivalenol and fumonisins from maize-based complementary foods in Rombo, Northern Tanzania. Food Control. 41: 76-81. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.12. 034] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.12.034]
20. Koo Y.C., Chang J.S., Chen Y.C. (2018). Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods. PLoS One. 13: 0191982. [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191982] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191982] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Kortei N.K., Agyekum A.A., Akuamoa F., Baffour V.K., Alidu H.W. (2019). Risk assessment and exposure to levels of naturally occurring aflatoxins in some packaged cereals and cereal based foods consumed in Accra, Ghana. Toxicology Reports. 6: 34-41. [DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.012] [DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.012] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Kumi J., Mitchell N.J., Asare G.A., Dotse E., Kwaa F., Phillips T.D., Ankrah N.A. (2014). Aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination of home-made food (weanimix) from cereal-legume blends for children. Ghana Medical Journal. 48: 121-126. [DOI: 10.4314/gmj.v48i3.1] [DOI:10.4314/gmj.v48i3.1] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Laryea D.O., Awuah B., Amoako Y.A., Osei-Bonsu E., Dogbe J., Larsen-Reindorf R., Ansong D., Yeboah-Awudzi K., Oppong J.K., Konney T.O., Boadu K.O., Nguah S.B., et al. (2014). Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry. BMC Cancer. 14: 362. [DOI: 10.1186/ 1471-2407-14-362] [DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-362] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Lombard M.J. (2014). Mycotoxin exposure and infant and young child growth in Africa: what do we know? Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 64: 42-52. [DOI: 10.1159/000365126] [DOI:10.1159/000365126] [PMID]
25. Munkvold G.P. (2003). Cultural and genetic approaches to managing mycotoxins in maize. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 41: 99-116. [DOI: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.052002.095510] [DOI:10.1146/annurev.phyto.41.052002.095510] [PMID]
26. Ofori-Asenso R., Agyeman A.A. (2016). Hepatitis B in Ghana: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies (1995-2015). BMC Infectious Diseases. 16: 130. [DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1467-5] [DOI:10.1186/s12879-016-1467-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Omari R., Frempong G.K., Arthur W. (2018). Public perceptions and worry about food safety hazards and risks in Ghana. Food Control. 93: 76-82. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.026] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.026]
28. Pimpukdee K., Kubena L.F., Bailey C.A., Huebner H.J., Afriyie-Gyawu E., Phillips T.D. (2004). Aflatoxin-induced toxicity and depletion of hepatic vitamin A in young broiler chicks: protection of chicks in the presence of low levels of NovaSil PLUS in the diet. Poultry Science. 83: 737-744. [DOI : 10.1093/ps/83.5.737] [DOI:10.1093/ps/83.5.737] [PMID]
29. Shephard G.S. (2008). Risk assessment of aflatoxins in food in Africa. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A. 25: 1246-1256. [DOI: 10.1080/02652030802036222] [DOI:10.1080/02652030802036222] [PMID]
30. Stroka J., Anklam E. (2002). New strategies for the screening and determination of aflatoxins and the detection of aflatoxin-producing moulds in food and feed. TrAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 21: 90-95. [DOI: 10.1016/S0165-9936(01)00133-9] [DOI:10.1016/S0165-9936(01)00133-9]
31. Turner P.C., Collinson A.C., Cheung Y.B., Gong Y.Y., Hall A.J., Prentice A.M., Wild C.P. (2007). Aflatoxin exposure in utero causes growth faltering in Gambian infants. International Journal of Epidemiology. 36: 1119-1125. [DOI: 10.1093/ije/ dym122] [DOI:10.1093/ije/dym122] [PMID]
32. United States Agency International Development (USAID), Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). (2017). Findings of an analysis of infant and young child feeding using optifood analysis and focused ethnographic studies in Ghana. A summary report. URL: https://www.gainhealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Ghana-FES_Optifood-Analysis-Summary-Report_Oct-2017.pdf. Accessed 15 February 2020.
33. Wong M.C.S., Jiang J.Y., Goggins W.B., Liang M., Fang Y., Fung F.D.H., Leung C., Wang H.H.X., Wong G.L.H., Wong V.W.S., Chan H.L.Y. (2017). International incidence and mortality trends of liver cancer: a global profile. Scientific Reports. 7: 45846. [DOI: 10.1038/srep45846] [DOI:10.1038/srep45846] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. World Health Organization (WHO). (2002). Global strategy on infant and young child feeding. Fifty-fifth world health assembly report. World Health Organization. URL: http://apps.who.int/gb/archive/pdf_files/WHA55/ea5515.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 28 February 2020.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

© 2020 All Rights Reserved | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb