Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2020)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2020, 7(3): 119-127 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ofomata I, Nwankwo I, Ogugua A, Ezenduka E, Nwanta J, Obidike R. Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Hide and Skin of Slaughtered Cattle and Goats in Anambra State, Nigeria. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2020; 7 (3) :119-127
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-752-en.html
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria , innocent.nwankwo@unn.edu.ng
Abstract:   (543 Views)
Background: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among hazardous chemicals that may endanger food safety. In Nigeria, hides and skins of animals are edible and used in dishes. So, this study investigated the levels of PAHs in singed and unsinged hides and skins of animals slaughtered at three districts abattoirs (Obosi, Uga, and Kwata) in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Methods: Using gas chromatography, the levels of PAHs were determined in 120 samples of raw and singed cattle hides and goat skins. Data were analyzed using the SPSS Windows software package (version 20.0).
Results: The total PAHs of raw and singed cattle hides were respectively 0.80 and 12.33 µg/kg for Obosi district, 0.56 and 6.96 µg/kg for Uga district, and 8.30 and 16.24 µg/kg for Kwata district. Furthermore, the total PAHs levels in raw and singed goat skins were respectively 2.75 and 9.00 µg/kg for Obosi district, 1.76 and 6.42 µg/kg for Uga district, and 1.30 and 5.19 µg/kg for Kwata district. The levels of some PAHs in singed hides and skins were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the unsinged samples.
Conclusion: The materials used in singeing may increase the concentration of PAHs in singed hide and skin. Although, the known carcinogenic PAHs in the samples were below the maximum permissible level, it is probably of public health concern due to the associated health risk on cumulative exposure via the dietary consumption of such contaminated local meals. 

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.7.3.4143
Full-Text [PDF 546 kb]   (141 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 20/06/09 | Accepted: 20/08/01 | Published: 20/09/22

1. Abou-Arab A.A.K., Abou-Donia M.A., El-Dars F. (2014). Detection of polycyclic aromatic hyrocarbons levels in Egyptian meat and milk after heat treatment by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 3: 294-305.
2. Abramsson-zetterberg L., Darnerud P.O., Wretling S. (2014). Low intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Sweden: results based on market basket data and a barbecue study. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 74: 107-111. [DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2014. 09.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.09.004] [PMID]
3. Adam I., Okyere D., Teye M. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal residues in hides of goats singed with tyres, and the effect of boiling on the heavy metal concentrations in the hides. Journal of Veterinary Advances. 3: 165-169. [DOI: 10.5455/jva. 20130531104440] [DOI:10.5455/jva.20130531104440]
4. Adeyeye S.A.O., Oyewole O.B., Obadina O., Adeniran O.E., Oyedele H.A., Olugbile A., Omemu A.M. (2016). Effect of smoking methods on microbial safety, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and heavy metal concentrations of traditional smoked fish from Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology. 14: 91-106. [DOI: 10.1080/ 15428052.2015.1080644] [DOI:10.1080/15428052.2015.1080644]
5. Akpambang V.O.E., Purcaro G., Lajide L., Amoo I.A., Conte L.S., Moret S. (2009). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commonly consumed Nigerian smoked/grilled fish and meat. Food Addictive and Contaminants: Part A. 26: 1096-1103. [DOI: 10.1080/02652030902855406] [DOI:10.1080/02652030902855406] [PMID]
6. Akwetey W.Y., Eremong D.C., Donkoh A. (2013). Chemical and nutrient composition of cattle hide ("Welle") using different processing methods. Journal of Animal Science Advances. 3: 176-180. [DOI: 10.5455/jasa.20130430123444] [DOI:10.5455/jasa.20130430123444]
7. Chen Y., Shen G., Su S., Shen H., Huang Y., Li T., Li W., Zhang Y., Lu Y., Chen H., Yang C., Lin N., et al. (2014). Contamination and distribution of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21: 11521-11530. [DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3129-8] [DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3129-8] [PMID]
8. Codex Alementarrius. (2007). Joint FAO/WHO food standards program. Codex committee on food additives and contaminants. 37th Session. The Netherlands.
9. Dike H.O., Adedolapo A.A. (2012). Presence and levels of common polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in staple foods of Nigerians. Journal of Food and Public Health. 2: 50-54. [DOI:10.5923/j.fph.20120201.10] [DOI:10.5923/j.fph.20120201.10]
10. Ehigiamusoe P.E., Oguazu C.E., Ezeh C.O., Martins F.O. (2015). Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercially prepared roasted foods in Oredo Lga of Edo State, South Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Biosciences. 3: 99-103. [DOI: 10.4103/njecp.njecp_ 36_15] [DOI:10.4103/njecp.njecp_36_15]
11. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (1998). Locating and estimating air emission from sources of polycyclic organic matters. EPA 454/R-98-14. United States Environmental protection Agency, Washington, DC.
12. Erema R.D., Adaobi P.U. (2013). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment and tissues of the crab Callinectes pallidus from the azuabie creek of the upper bonny estuary in the Niger Delta. Research Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. 6: 2594-2600. [DOI: 10.19026/rjaset.6.3744] [DOI:10.19026/rjaset.6.3744]
13. European Commission. (2011). Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 amending regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European :union:. 215: 8.
14. Ezike C.O., Ohen J.N., Echor F.O. (2017). Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in hardwood, palmwood and softwood-smoked fish. International Journal of Ecotoxicology and Ecobiology. 2: 178-181. [DOI: 10.11648/j. ijee.20170204.17] [DOI:10.11648/j.ijee.20170204.17]
15. Hussein I.A.S., Mona S.M.M. (2016). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 25: 107-123. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011] [DOI:10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011]
16. Jira W., Ziegenhals K., Speer K. (2008). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of 16 European priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and edible oils. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A. 25: 704-713. [DOI: 10.1080/ 02652030701697769] [DOI:10.1080/02652030701697769] [PMID]
17. Li J., Dong H., Li X., Han B., Zhu C., Zhang D. (2016). Quantitatively assessing the health risk of exposure to PAHs from intake of smoked meats. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 124: 91-95. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.10.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.10.007] [PMID]
18. Manda P., Dano D.S., Ehile E.S.J., Koffi M., Amani N., Ass Y.A. (2012). Evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in foods sold in Abobo market, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 4: 99-105. [DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS11.085] [DOI:10.5897/JTEHS11.085]
19. National Population Commission of Nigeria. (2011). Population and housing census. Priority table. Volume 4. Population distribution by age & sex. State & Local Government Area.
20. Nisha A.R., Dinesh-kumar V., Arivudainambi S., Umer M., Khan M.S. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in processed meats: a toxicological perspective. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. 19: 72-76.
21. Nnaji J.C., Madu E.S., Chukwuemeka-okorie H.O. (2017). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in cattle hides and meat singed with scrap rubber tyres. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 21: 1105-1110. [DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v21i6.19] [DOI:10.4314/jasem.v21i6.19]
22. Nollet L.M.L. (2007). Handbook of meat, poultry and seafood quality. 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., United Kingdom. [DOI:10.1002/9780470277829]
23. Obiri-Danso K., Hogarh J.N., Antwi-agyei P. (2008). Assessment of contamination of singed hides from cattle and goat by heavy metals in Ghana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2: 217- 221.
24. Odiba J.O., Chukwuma O.B.O. (2017). Quantification of smoke contributed PAHs in roasted cowhide (Ponmo) from Northern Nigeria. FUW Trends in Science and Technology Journal. 2: 55-59.
25. Ofomata I., Obodoechi L.O., Obidike R.I., Nwanta J.A. (2019). Presence and levels of concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish, hides and skin of slaughter cattle and goats in Awka urban, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research. 11: 14-17. [DOI: 10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i2.33014] [DOI:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i2.33014]
26. Ogbonna I.L.P., Nwaocha K.B. (2015). Determination of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on singed cow hide (Punmo) and charcoal grilled meat (Suya). Archives of Applied Science Research. 7: 1-6.
27. Okonkwo F.O., Ejike C.E.C.C., Berger U., Schmaling C., Schierl R., Radon K. (2014). Workplace exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review and discussion of regulatory imperatives for Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 8: 98-109. [DOI: 10.3923/rjet. 2014.98.109] [DOI:10.3923/rjet.2014.98.109]
28. Olabemiwo O.M. (2013). Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled/roasted maize and plantain sold in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 13: 87-93.
29. Palm L.M.N., Carboo D., Yeboah O.P., Quasie W.J., Gorleku M.A., Darko A. (2011). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in smoked fish from Ghana. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 3: 332-338.
30. Pena T., Pensado L., Casais C., Mejuto C., Phan-Tan-Luu R., Cela R. (2006). Optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fish samples. Journal of Chromatography A. 1121: 163-169. [DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2006.04.038] [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.04.038] [PMID]
31. Plaza-Bolanos P., Frenich A.G., Vidal J.L.M. (2010). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food and beverage. Analytical methods and trends. Journal of Chromatography A. 1217: 6303-6326. [DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.07.079] [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.07.079] [PMID]
32. Qin N., He W., Kong X.Z., Liu W.X., He Q.S., Yang B., Wang Q.M., Yang C., Jiang Y.J., Jorgensen S.E., Xu F.L., Zhao X.L. (2014). Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the water-SPM- sediment system of Lake Chaohu, China. Science of the Total Environment. 496: 414-423. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.045] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.045] [PMID]
33. Singh L., Varshney J.G., Agarwal T. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chemistry. 199: 768-781. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2015.12.074] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.12.074] [PMID]
34. Tongo I., Ogbeide O., Ezemonye L. (2017). Human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria. Toxicology Reports. 4: 55-61. [DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.12. 006] [DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.12.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Wenzl T., Simon R., Anklam E., Kleiner J. (2006). Analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and the environment needed for new food legislation in the European :union:. Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 25: 716-725. [DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2006.05.010] [DOI:10.1016/j.trac.2006.05.010]
36. Xia Z., Duan X., Qiu W., Liu D., Wang B., Tao S., Jiang Q., Lu B., Song Y., Hu X. (2010). Health risk assessment on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China. Science of the Total Environment. 408: 5331-5337. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.008] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.008] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb