Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2021)                   J. Food Qual. Hazards Control 2021, 8(2): 66-70 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Esteki F, Karimi H, Moazeni M, Esfandiari Z, Zarean M, Pourzamani H. Risk Assessment of Phthalate Compounds in Bottled Water Consumed in Isfahan, Iran. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control. 2021; 8 (2) :66-70
URL: http://jfqhc.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-877-en.html
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran , pourzamani@hlth.mui.ac.ir
Abstract:   (229 Views)
Background: Phthalates are main ingredients of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles used for storage of water. These compounds can cause adverse effects on human health. The purpose of this study was the quantification of the amounts of phthalates migrated in bottled water as well as the risk assessment of those compounds.
Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on 15 PET bottled water samples of popular brands distributed in Isfahan city, Iran. The samples were immediately sent to laboratory for analysis. Amounts of Phthalic Anhydride (PA), di-2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-buthyl phthalate (DBP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), and terphthalic acid (TPA) in bottled water samples were measured using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Risk assessment of migrated compounds were calculated and compared with Hazard Quito (HQ) standards.
Results: The ranges of PA, DEHP, DBP, and TPA were 2.3-26, 171-845, 30-2251, and 24-657 ppb, respectively. DEP was not found in none of the analyzed samples. HQ levels of DEHP, TPA, and DBP were more than 1 in bottled water. 
Conclusion: In the current study, the concentration of DEHP, TPA, and DBP in some bottled water of Isfahan, Iran were higher than the permitted limits. Also, HQ levels of these three migrated compounds were more than 1 in bottled water that is alarming for public health in this region of Iran.

DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.8.2.6470
Full-Text [PDF 404 kb]   (153 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original article | Subject: Special
Received: 19/02/06 | Accepted: 20/06/30 | Published: 21/06/17

References
1. Al-Mudhaf H.F., Alsharifi F.A., Abu-Shady A.S.I. (2009). A survey of organic contaminants in household and bottled drinking waters in Kuwait. Science of the Total Environment. 407: 1658-1668. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.057] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.057] [PMID]
2. Alonso S.G., Valcárcel Y., Montero J.C., Catalá M. (2012). Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain. Science of the Total Environment. 416: 527-531. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.046] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.046] [PMID]
3. Amiridou D., Voutsa D. (2011). Alkylphenols and phthalates in bottled waters. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 185: 281-286. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.031] [DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.09.031] [PMID]
4. Bach C., Dauchy X., Severin I., Munoz J.F., Etienne S., Changon M.C. (2013). Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity. Food Chemistry. 139: 672-680. [10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.046] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.046]
5. Bošnir J., Puntarić D., Galić A., Škes I., Dijanić T., Klarić M., Grgić M., Čurković M., Šmit Z. (2007). Migration of phthalates from plastic containers into soft drinks and mineral water. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 45: 91-95.
6. Ebrahimi A., Moazeni M., Esfandiari Z., Estaki F., Samani Majd A.M., Mirlohi M., Abdi Moghadam Z., Falahati M., Pourzamani H. (2016). Qualitative evaluation of bottled water stored in polyethylene terephtalate based on organic chemical compounds. Anuário Do Instituto De Geociências-UFRJ. 39: 29-35. [DOI: 10.11137/2016_2_29_35] [DOI:10.11137/2016_2_29_35]
7. Ikem A. (2010). Measurement of volatile organic compounds in bottled and tap waters by purge and trap GC-MS: are drinking water types different? Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 23: 70-77. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca. 2009.05.005] [DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.05.005]
8. Ikem A., Odueyungbo S., Egiebor N.O., Nyavor K. (2002). Chemical quality of bottled waters from three cities in eastern Alabama. Science of the Total Environment. 285: 165-175. [DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00915-9] [DOI:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00915-9]
9. Institute for Environment and Health (IEH). (2005). Chemicals purported to be endocrine disrupters: a compilation of published lists. Leicester (UK).
10. Jin B.H., Xiao F., Chen B., Chen P.J., Xie L.Q. (2010). Simultaneous determination of 42 organic chemicals in bottled water by combining C18 extraction disk with GC-MS and LC/MS/MS technique. Journal of Water and Health. 8: 116-125. [DOI: 10.2166/wh.2009.104] [DOI:10.2166/wh.2009.104] [PMID]
11. Leivadara S.V., Nikolaou A.D., Lekkas T.D. (2008). Determination of organic compounds in bottled waters. Food Chemistry. 108: 277-286. [DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.031] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.031]
12. Martine B., Marie-Jeanne T., Cendrine D., Fabrice A., Marc C. (2013). Assessment of adult human exposure to phthalate esters in the urban centre of Paris (France). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 90: 91-96. [DOI: 10.1007/s00128-012-0859-5] [DOI:10.1007/s00128-012-0859-5] [PMID]
13. Moazeni M., Ebrahimi A., Atefi M., Mahaki B., Rastegari H.A. (2014). Determination of nitrate and nitrite exposure and their health risk assessment in 21 brands of bottled waters in Isfahan's market in 2013. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 3: 28. [DOI: 10.4103/ 2277-9183.139747] [DOI:10.4103/2277-9183.139747]
14. Montuori P., Jover E., Morgantini M., Bayona J.M., Triassi M. (2008). Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles. Food Additives and Contaminants. 25: 511-518. [DOI: 10.1080/ 02652030701551800] [DOI:10.1080/02652030701551800] [PMID]
15. Pinto B., Reali D. (2009). Screening of estrogen-like activity of mineral water stored in PET bottles. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 212: 228-232 .[DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.06.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.06.004] [PMID]
16. Salazar-Beltrán D., Hinojosa-Reyes L., Ruiz-Ruiz E., Hernández-Ramírez A., Guzmán-Mar J.L. (2017). Determination of phthalates in bottled water by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with UV detection. Talanta. 168: 291-297. [DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta. 2017.03.060] [DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2017.03.060] [PMID]
17. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (2000). Risk-based concentration table. US environmental protection agency. Washington, DC/Philadelphia.
18. Wagner M., Oehlmann J. (2011). Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: estrogenic activity in the E-Screen. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 127: 128-135. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.10.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.10.007] [PMID]
19. Yan H., Liu B., Du J., Row K.H. (2010). Simultaneous determination of four phthalate esters in bottled water using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-FID detection. Analyst. 135: 2585-2590. [DOI: 10.1039/C0AN00441C]. [DOI:10.1039/c0an00441c] [PMID]
20. Zaki G., Shoeib T. (2018). Concentrations of several phthalates contaminants in Egyptian bottled water: effects of storage conditions and estimate of human exposure. Science of the Total Environment. 618: 142-150. [DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2017.10.337] [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.337] [PMID]
21. Zarean M., Bina B., Ebrahimi A., Pourzamani H., Esteki F. (2015). Degradation of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation process. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 4: 34. [DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.170701]
22. Zarean M., Keikha M., Poursafa P., Khalighinejad P., Amin M., Kelishadi R. (2016). A systematic review on the adverse health effects of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23: 24642-24693. [DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7648-3] [DOI:10.1007/s11356-016-7648-3] [PMID]
23. Zhang Y., Lee H.K. (2013). Low-density solvent-based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the fast determination of phthalate esters in bottled water. Journal of Chromatography A. 1274: 28-35. [DOI: /10.1016/j.chroma.2012.12.017] [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.12.017]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of food quality and hazards control

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb